Freedom Activist Network's Guide To
Philosophical Analysis

ANALYTICAL ISSUES
Analytics · Ethics · Fallacies · Other Analysis Orgs & Websites

 

 

 

affirming the consequent
(if p, then q) and (q); therefore (p)
argument
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_argument
circular reasoning
P1; therefore P2; ...; therefore Pn; therefore P1
conclusion
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conclusion
denying the antecedent
(if p, then q) and (not p); therefore (not q)
inference
also see therefore
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inference
logic
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic
logical falsehood
logical necessity
logical possibility
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_possibility
logical truth
modal
modal logic
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_logic
modal operator
modus ponens
(if p then q) and (p); therefore (q)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modus_ponens
modus tollens
(if p then q) and (not q); therefore (not p)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modus_tollens
p
q
truth
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth

 

Analytics

Analytic Models
1. Scientific Method
2. Evolution
3. Innovation
4. Dialectics

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

1. curiosity, observation or description
2. conclusion or description
2. question, problem or controversy
3. goals, planning
4. hypothesis, explanation or cause
5. prediction
6. test, experiment, data collection
7. analysis, correlation, corroboration, evaluation
8. theory, solutions, refinement, reliability and repeatability of hypothesis, explanation or cause

Scientific Method Links
biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method, scientificmethod.com/b_index.html, biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm, koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plants_Human/scimeth.html, phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node6.html, teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/AppendixE/AppendixE.html, dharma-haven.org/science/myth-of-scientific-method.htm

1. Realities or Actualities
2. Description, Modeling
3. Goals, Problems or Questions
4. Strategy, Plan
more to come

Precondition or Cause > A
Conditional > if A
Result or Effect > B
Prophecy > then B
Prediction > if A then B > Conditional Prophecy
Symmetry in nonsequential relationship between A & B
Asymmetry in sequential relationship between A & B (entropic, temporal)

Different kinds of theories and models:

CONCEPTUAL
(ABSTRACT, TIMELESSNESS, SPACELESSNESS)
(also see Nominalism)

Mathematical:

0 (zero, number zero, integer zero)

1 (one, number one, integer one)

= (equals, equal to, is)
0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals" and "zero"
1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals" and "one"
0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "zero" and "one"
1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "zero" and "one"

=/= (not equals, not equal to, is not)
0 =/= 1 TRUE by definition of "not equal to", "zero" and "one"
1 =/= 0 TRUE by definition of "not equal to", "zero" and "one"
0 =/= 0 FALSE by definition of "not equal to" and "zero"
1 =/= 1 FALSE by definition of "not equal to" and "one"

> (greater than)
1 > 0 TRUE by definition of "greater than", "zero" and "one"
0 > 0 FALSE by definition of "greater than" and "zero"
0 > 1 FALSE by definition of "greater than", "zero" and "one"
1 > 1 FALSE by definition of "greater than" and "one"

< (less than)
0 < 1 TRUE by definition of "less than", "zero" and "one"
0 < 0 FALSE by definition of "less than" and "zero"
1 < 0 FALSE by definition of "less than", "zero" and "one"
1 < 1 FALSE by definition of "less than" and "one"

/> (not greater than)
0 /> 0 TRUE by definition of "not greater than" and "zero"
0 /> 1 TRUE by definition of "not greater than", "zero" and "one"
1 /> 1 TRUE by definition of "not greater than" and "one"
1 /> 0 FALSE by definition of "not greater than", "zero" and "one"

</ (not less than)
0 </ 0 TRUE by definition of "not less than" and "zero"
1 </ 0 FALSE by definition of "not less than", "zero" and "one"
1 </ 1 TRUE by definition of "not less than" and "one"
0 </ 1 TRUE by definition of "not less than", "zero" and "one"

+ (add, addition, plus)
0 + 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus" and "zero"
0 + 1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 0 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
0 + 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
0 + 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 0 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus" and "one"

– (subtract, subtraction, minus)
0 – 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus" and "zero"
1 – 0 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 1 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 0 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"

× (multiply, multiplication, times)
0 × 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times" and "zero"
0 × 1 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
0 × 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
0 × 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"

÷ (divided by, division)
0 ÷ 1 = 0 - TRUE by definition of "equals", "divided by", "zero" and "one"
1 ÷ 1 = 1 - TRUE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
0 ÷ 0 = 0 - INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
0 ÷ 0 = 1 - INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 0 = 0 - FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 0 = 1 - FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 1 = 0 - FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"

ii (to the power of)
01 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of", "zero" and "one"
10 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of", "zero" and "one"
11 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of" and "one"
00 = 0 INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "to the power of" and "zero"
00 = 1 INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "to the power of" and "zero"
01 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of", "zero" and "one"
10 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of", "zero" and "one"
11 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of", "zero" and "one"

(equations with integers 0, 1)
0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1, 1 – 1 = 0, 1 – 0 = 1, 0 × 1 = 0, 1 × 0 = 0, 0 ÷ 1 = 0, 01 = 0, 10 = 1

Integer Numbers:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ..., -1, -2, -3, -4, ...

- (negative, minus)
-1 (negative one, minus one)
0 – 1 = -1

2 (two, number two, integer two)
1 + 1 = 2
2 – 1 = 1
2 – 0 = 2
2 – 2 = 0,
20 = 1
21 = 2
1 × 1 = 12 = 1

2 (squared, to the power of two)
02 = 0
12 = 1

-/¯ (square root)
-/¯1 = 1
-/¯0 = 0
-/¯4 = 2
-/¯9 = 3
21/2 = -/¯2

n-/¯ (nth root)
2-/¯1 = -/¯1 = 1
3-/¯1 = 1
4-/¯1 = -/¯(-/¯1) = 1

Prime Numbers:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, ...

Fractional Numbers: f = i ÷ i
1 ÷ 2 = 1/2, 1 ÷ 3 = 1/3, ...
1/2, 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ...
1/3, 2/3, 4/3, 5/3, ...
1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 5/4. ...
1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5, ...
1/6, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6, ...
...

Transcendental Numbers:
-/¯2, -/¯3, 3-/¯2, 3-/¯3, ...
pi (geometric number)

Imaginary Numbers:
i = -/¯-1
i × i = -1

Algebra:
a – a = 0
a ÷ a = 1
a × 0 = 0
0 ÷ a = 0
a × 1 = a
0a = 0
1a = 1
a0 = 1
a1 = a
a2 = a × a
a4 = (a2)2 = a × a × a × a
a-/¯1 = 1
2-/¯a = -/¯a
4-/¯a = -/¯(-/¯a)

Function:
y = ƒ(x)

General Equation:
G(x,y,...) = 0

General Equation of Function y = ƒ(x)
G(x,y) = ƒ(x) – y = 0
G(x,y) = y – ƒ(x) = 0

Union of 2 General Equations
(G1(x,y,...) = 0) U (G2(x,y,...) = 0)  <=>  G1(x,y,...) × G2(x,y,...) = 0

Intersection of 2 General Equations
(G1(x,y,...) = 0) ^ (G2(x,y,...) = 0)  <=>  (G1(x,y,...))2 + (G2(x,y,...))2 = 0

Logic:
if a = b, then b = a
if a = b2, then b = -/¯a
if a = b + c, then b = a – c
if a = b + c, then c = a – b
if a = b × c, then b = a ÷ c
if a = b × c, then c = a ÷ b
if A, then B => if not B, then not A
logical operators (not, if, then, intersection, union)

Definitional:
A = A, words, symbols

PHYSICAL

Geometrical:
pi = C ÷ D, C = pi × D, D = C ÷ pi
a2 + b2 = c2, c = -/¯(a2 + b2), a = -/¯(c2 – b2), b= -/¯(c2 – a2)
Volumes, Areas, Lengths, Lines, Planes, Squares, Rectangles, Circles, Spheres, Cubes, Cones, ...

Chronological:
Predictions, Cause & Effect; Simultaneity, Cooincidence, Progression; Sequential

Dynamic: E=mc2; F=g*m1*m2*; c (speed of light), Conservation of Inertia, Mass & Energy

MOTIVATIONS
curiosity
need
opportunity

GOALS
adequacy
descriptions
efficiency
explanations
relationships
relevancy
problemsolving and anomalies
significance
sufficiency
understanding

UTILITY
accuracy (y=x ± insignificant error), ie adequacy, relevancy, significance, sufficiency
simplicity (y=x is simpler than 17y=17x)
repeatability, reliability, predictability (y always = x)
efficiency (y=x is more efficient than 17y=17x)

EVOLUTION

1. Competition
2. Variation, Diversity
3. Selection

INNOVISM

1. Continuity
2. Augmentation
3. Discrimination

DIALECTICS

1. Thesis
2. Antithesis
3. Synthesis
4. Repeat 1., 2., 3., 4.

Troubleshooting, Problem Solving

 

 

Ethics

Mathematics of Ethics
utilitarian.org/maths.html
Continuity - Discontinuity - Intensity - Duration
Dimensional Scalar - Locality (0 dimensional), Linear (1 dimensional), Graphic (2 dimensional), Volumetric (3 dimensional), ... Time? (4th dimension?) ... (n dimensional)
Population, Population Density - Extent
Predictability - Certainty - Variability
Murphy's Law of Engineering - treat all constants as variables
Comparative Ethics
Consequential Ethics
"Utilitarianism, or consequential ethics, is concerned with the end result, rather than the means used to achieve the results. If the benefits of performing an action ... outweigh the costs, then consequential ethics recommends performing the action. One thing that is often overlooked when considering this method is that everyone effected by an action must be accounted for." Dunivan's Boston College Midterm
Dilemma Ethics
(Least harm of multiple choices)
Duty Ethics
"The second categorical imperative states that one should not use people as a means to an end. ... Duty ethics is so redeeming because it brings every situation to the same level. An action is just or unjust no matter what the size is." Dunivan's Boston College Midterm
Individualistic Ethics
Necessitarism
see Consequential Ethics
Relativistic Ethics
Sacrificial Ethics
Situational Ethics
Utilitarianism
also see Consequential Ethics
utilitarian.com, utilitarianism.com/utilitarian.htm
utilitarian.org
Act Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/actutil.htm
Hedonistic Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/hedutil.htm
Ideal Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/idealuti.htm
Indirect Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/indiutil.htm
Negative Utilitarianism
"Negative utilitarianism denies ... that happiness is intrinsically valuable. By negative utilitarianism, the only goal (the only thing which is seen as "good") is the reduction of suffering."
utilitarianism.com/negutil.htm
Positive Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/posutil.htm
Preference Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/prefutil.htm
Restrictive Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/restrict.htm
Rule Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/ruleutil.htm
Theological Utilitarianism
utilitarianism.com/theoutil.htm
Virtue Ethics
"Virtue ethics would say there is no justification in taking this action [of theft]. ... Aristotle suggests very specifically in Habit and Virtue that virtue will result from the repetition of good deeds. ... in the teachings of Martin Luther King. He states that if actions against a law or precedent are taken, they must be openly exhibited for all to see. ... The first of Kant's categorical imperatives states that an action is morally right if and only if it would be right for everyone in a similar situation to do the same thing." Dunivan's Boston College Midterm

 

 

Fallacies

A fallacy is an argument, assertion or reasoning that is structurally flawed, unproven, or unproveable.

Fallacious arguments do not necessarily contain false statements of fact.

Five classes of fallacies include:

1. deductive fallacies
2. syllogistic fallacies
3. inductive fallacies
4. causal fallacies
5. fallacy of equivocation
1. Deductive fallacies include:
a. fallacy of affirming the consequent
b. fallacy of assumption
1) fallacy of circular reasoning (or begging the question) P1 => P2 => Pn => P1
c. fallacy of denying the antecedent
2. Syllogistic fallacies include:
a. fallacy of division
b. fallacy of composition
c. fallacy of every and all
3. Inductive fallacies include:
a. fallacy of insufficient statistics
b. fallacy of biased statistics
c. fallacy of argumentum ad hominen (argument against man)
4. Causal fallacies include:
a. "post hoc" fallacy of mistaking coincidence with cause
b. fallacy of confusing cause and effect
c. fallacy of common cause
5. Fallacy of equivocation includes:
a. fallacy of using an expression 2 or more times that has a different meaning each time its used

 

 

Other Philosophical Analysis Organizations & Websites

Foundation for Critical Thinking
aka Critical Thinking Consortium
Box 220 Dillon Beach CA 94929, 707-878-9100, fax 707-878-9111
criticalthinking.org, email cct@criticalthinking.org
International Center for the Assessment of Higher Order Thinking (ICAT)
criticalthinking.org/icat.html
National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (NCECT)
criticalthinking.org/ncect.html
Fallacy Files
fallacyfiles.org
(John) Galt's "Statistics and Lying with Numbers"
webstation19.8k.com/lying.htm
(Carl) Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit
xenu.net/archive/baloney_detection.html
Skeptic's Dictionary
skepdic.com